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Calcium chloride is an inorganic salt with the chemical formula CaCl2. It is formed from the neutralization reaction between hydrochloric acid and calcium hydroxide. This salt is a white crystalline solid at room temperature. The solubility of this compound is high in water. Calcium chloride is mainly used for descaling and dust control. Also in food industries it can be used as with E509.
|Molar mass||110.98 g·mol−1|
|Appearance||White powder, hygroscopic|
|Density||2.15 g/cm3 (anhydrous)2.24 g/cm3 (monohydrate)|
1.85 g/cm3 (dihydrate)
1.83 g/cm3 (tetrahydrate)
1.71 g/cm3 (hexahydrate)
|Melting point||772–775 °C (1,422–1,427 °F; 1,045–1,048 K)|
260 °C (500 °F; 533 K)
175 °C (347 °F; 448 K)
45.5 °C (113.9 °F; 318.6 K)
30 °C (86 °F; 303 K)
|Boiling point||1,935 °C (3,515 °F; 2,208 K) anhydrous|
|Solubility in water||Anhydrous:|
74.5 g/100 mL (20 °C)
49.4 g/100 mL (−25 °C)
59.5 g/100 mL (0 °C)
65 g/100 mL (10 °C)
81.1 g/100 mL (25 °C)
102.2 g/100 mL (30.2 °C)
90.8 g/100 mL (20 °C)
114.4 g/100 mL (40 °C)
134.5 g/100 mL (60 °C)
152.4 g/100 mL (100 °C)
Solubility in other solvent
| Soluble in CH3COOH, alcohols|
Insoluble in liquid NH3, DMSO, CH3COOC2H5
in worldwide Calcium chloride is usually obtained from limestone as a by-product of the Solvay process in accordance with the following reaction.
2 NaCl + CaCO3 → Na2CO3 + CaCl2
Calcium chloride is permitted as a food additive E E509. It is considered as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. The permissible amount of this substance is estimated as an average of 160-345 mg per day as food additives.
It is used as a firming agent in food products such as canned vegetables, in hardening soy curd in tofu, and in the production of caviar substitutes from vegetable or fruit juices.
In addition, this substance is used in the preparation of beer to correct mineral deficiencies. The use of this substance affects the flavor and chemical reactions during the brewing process, as well as the yeast function during fermentation.
By adding this substance to processed milk (pasteurized / homogeneous), a natural balance between calcium and protein in casein is established. This material must be added before the coagulant.
In addition to food applications, it is used in industry as a concrete accelerator. The use of calcium chloride accelerates the drying of concrete. However, its use must be done in compliance with the separate amount.
This material is used as a deicing agent by reducing the freezing point of water. This is the highest consumption of calcium chloride in the world for this purpose. It works better than sodium chloride at low temperatures.
The use of this substance is not dangerous for animals and soil.
Exposure to calcium chloride can cause serious eye irritation. If inhaled, it can irritate our airways and stomach. Also, prolonged exposure to the skin can irritate the skin. When you are exposed to this substance for a long time, you should wear long sleeves, masks and goggles.
The use of small amounts of this substance in food if consumed in the permitted amount is not dangerous to human health. But overdose can cause side effects such as nausea, vomiting and burns in the mouth and throat. If you swallow large amounts of this substance, you should contact a medical emergency immediately.