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Sodium hydroxide with the chemical formula NaOH is a strong base, it is used in many industries due to its unique physical and chemical properties. The two common forms of this material are liquid and solid, the liquid form of which is soluble in water and its solid form has high purity.
Industrial chemicals can be classified into acids and bases. Sodium hydroxide is in the base group and follows all the properties of the base. This chemical is one of the strong bases and has many applications in the industry.
Physical and chemical properties:
This strong alkali is a white, odorless crystalline solid at room temperature. This mineral compound absorbs water and decomposes into its constituent ions, so it must be away from water and moisture if you want to maintain it.
|Molar mass||39.9971 g mol−1|
|Appearance||White, hard (when pure), opaque crystals|
|Melting Point||323 °C (613 °F; 596 K)|
|Boiling point||1,388 °C (2,530 °F; 1,661 K)|
|Solubility in water||418 g/L (0 °C)
1000 g/L (25 °C)
3370 g/L (100 °C)
|Solubility||soluble in glycerol
negligible in ammonia
insoluble in ether
slowly soluble in propylene glycol
|Solubility in methanol||238 g/L|
|Solubility in ethanol||<<139 g/L|
|Chemical Structure Depiction|
Other names: Caustic soda, Lye, Ascarides, White caustic, Sodium hydrate
Formula and structure of sodium hydroxide:
This chemical compound is composed of sodium cations and hydroxide anions. The chemical formula of sodium hydroxide is NaOH.
Sodium hydroxide has a relatively simple molecular structure. The sodium atom has an ionic bond with the oxygen atom while the hydrogen atom has a covalent bond with the oxygen atom. Therefore, the sodium atom has a positive charge and the oxygen atom has a negative charge, hence sodium hydroxide is a polar molecule.
NaOH acid or base:
In chemistry, materials can be divided into three categories: alkaline, acidic, and neutral. Hydroxide is a base. This strong alkali has a pH of 12 and for concentrated solutions, its value is 13- 14.
Sodium hydroxide production process:
-There is an old reaction to produce sodium hydroxide in which calcium hydroxide is converted to calcium carbonate and sodium hydroxide in reaction with sodium carbonate.
Ca (OH)2 (aq) + Na2CO3(s) → CaCO3(s) + 2 NaOH (aq)
-The highest amount of sodium hydroxide produced is obtained through the process of electrolysis of sodium chloride solutions. In this process, chlorine gas and hydrogen are also produced and solid sodium hydroxide is obtained by evaporating water from this solution.
2NaCl + 2H2O → 2NaOH + H2 + Cl2
Caustic soda is produced by the direct reaction of sodium and water, the by-products of which are hydrogen gas and heat, which are often accompanied by a flame. Separation of sodium metal is done by reducing the electrolysis of sodium compounds such as caustic soda. The product is soluble in water.
Applications and uses of sodium hydroxide:
-One of the uses of caustic soda is in the preparation and production of paper. The pulp is produced by both mechanical and chemical methods.
The application of caustic soda in the aluminum industry is used to dissolve bauxite ore, the raw material for aluminum production, and alumina deposition.
-Sodium hydroxide, as a strong base, is one of the most important industrial chemicals.
-alkaline sodium hydroxide solution is also used in laboratories to determine the concentration of unknown acids in open acid titration.
-This substance can be used in detergent products due to its high ability to dissolve fats. In these products, this compound can stabilize the pH.
Sodium hydroxide is a corrosive chemical and can dissolve tissues and proteins in the body. If sodium hydroxide comes in contact with the eyes, it can cause permanent blindness.
The solid form of sodium hydroxide can also have corrosive properties, so gloves, goggles, and protective clothing should be used when using this type of chemical.
Packing and storage:
Store in an area that is: cool, dry, well-ventilated, separate from incompatible materials. Store in the original, labeled, shipping container.